Adhab ul Salaam
Etiquette of Salaam
Alah (swt) said:
“When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it, or (at least) return it equally. Certainly, Allâh is Ever a Careful Account Taker of all things.
Allah (swt) said:
“But when you enter the houses, greet one another with a greeting from Allâh (i.e. say: As-Salâmu ‘Alaikum – peace be on you) blessed and good. Thus Allâh makes clear the Ayât (these Verses or your religious symbols and signs, etc.) to you that you may understand.
The Prophet (saw) said:
“You will not enter paradise until you are believers, and you will not be believers until you love each other, do you want me to tell you how to love each other? Say Assalam Alaykum.”
[Hadith Bukhari, Chapter of No body enter paradise but believers.]
The Prophet (saw) said:
“The rights of a Muslim on another Muslim are six, one of them if you meet a Muslim say Assalam Alaykum.”
[Saheeh Muslim, No. 2162]
– The Sunnah is to say Salaam and make him feel secure, and must accompany with a smile.
– To give salaam is recommended, Haq of a Muslim,
– It is Fard to answer salaam, and there is no disagreement among the Fuqaha
The Prophet (saw) said:
“It is enough for a group of people to pass by and say salaam, it is enough for a group of people to reply.”
[Abu Dawoud, No. 5210]
Abu Hurairah reported that “a man passed by the messenger (saw) and said Assalam Alaykum, The messenger (saw) said that for that there are 10 rewards, to say Assalam Alaykum Warahmatullah is 20 rewards, and to say Assalam Alaykum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuhu is 30 rewards.”
[Sahih Bukhari No. 986, Timidhi No. 2689, Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal No. 19,446]
1 – HOW TO ANSWER SALAAM
– If someone gives salaam, then give a better salaam.
– There is no Evidence to say that you can give more than Assalam Alaykum Warakhmatullahi Wabarakatuhu.
– Umar ibn al Khattab and Imam Ali used to say Assalamu Alaikum Warahmatullah Wabarakatahu.
2 – DON’T SAY WALAYKUM ASSALAAM , IF NO SALAAM IS GIVEN, IT IS DISLIKED.
Jabir bin Sulayn narrated that
“I visited the messenger (saw) and said Walaykum Salaam, the messenger (saw) said don’t say Walaykum Salaams, say Asalam Alaykum. (i.e. don’t reply… salute)”
[Tirmidhi No. 2722]
3 – RECOMMENDED TO GIVE SALAAMS THREE TIMES
Narrated by Anas,
“When the messenger (saw) entered a group of people he gave salaam three times.”
[Bukhari No. 6244]
– Applies to group of people and not individuals.
4 – GIVE THE SALAM PROUDLY AND LOUDLY
Abdullah ibn Omar said
“There is no reward if the salaam is not said aloud, and you must reply the same or Louder.”
The messenger of Allah (saw) said,
“if you say salaam, make it loud so people can hear it.”
[Kitaab ul Adab, Imam Bukhari, No. 1005]
– Loud as in loud enough to hear, not loud as in shouting and scaring person.
5 – MUST GENERALISE SALAAM WHEN ENTERING A GROUP OF PEOPLE, NOT MAKING IT SPECIFIC TO ONE PERSON.
A Man came to the messenger (saw) and said “tell me something good about Islam”, the messenger of Allah (saw) said “to feed people, and to give salam to the one you know and the one you do not know.”
[Bukhari No. 12, Sahih Muslim No. 39]
6 – THE ONE WHO ENTERS MUST GIVE SALAAM
Three men came to the messenger of Allah (saw), the messenger (saw) said to them “Assalam Alaykum Warakhmatullahi Wabarakatuhu,” and said “the one who enters should give salaam.”
[Kitaab ul Athkar, Imam Nawwawi]
7 – THE ONE WHO IS DRIVING WILL SAY SALAAM TO THE PEDESTRIAN. WHEN WALKING THE LESSER NUMBER WILL SAY TO THE HIGHER NUMBER. THE YOUNGER WILL SAY SALAAM TO THE ELDER.
The Prophet (saw) said:
“Let the Rider give salaam to the walking, let the walking give salaam to the sitting.”
[Narrated by Abu Hurairah, Bukhari No. 6232]
What if the walking gave Salaam to the riding, or the sitting to the walking ?
– It would be permissible, but opposite to the Sunnah.
What if both are elders, or both are walking ? who says salaams ?
“If two people are the same age, the best amongst them should say salaam first.”
[Saheeh al Bukhari No. 6077, Kitaab ul Adhaab, Imam Bukhari No. 994]
8 – CAN A MAN SAY SALAAM TO A WOMAN ?
– Fuqahaa differ on this issue…
– To say salaam to a young/beautiful women is forbidden
– Say salaam to elderly women is allowed, as long as there is avoidance of Fitnah (old as in old as mother, or grandmother)
– Sheikh Omar Bakri Muhammad says not allowed, unless in Shariah context, i.e. come to shop in morning. And say Assalam Alaykum.
– Ibn Qayyum said Ahmad bin Hanbal gave salaam to old women, and maybe women with mahrem.
Ibnu Abi Hazam narrates, that …
“there used to be old women who used to bring us some dates, she used to cultivate land, and do cooking, we used to say Salaams, in presence of Companions, she used to reply Walaykum Salaams.”
[Bukhari No. 6248]
9 – CAN YOU GIVE SALAAM TO CHILDREN ?
Yes it is rewardable
Anas ibn Malik reported,
“whenever the Prophet (saw) used to go past children he used to say Assalam Alaykum to the children.”
[Bukhari No. 6247]
If a child says Salaams to Adult is it Fard to Answer ??
It is not fard to answer, but it is recommended to answer, because they are not on Takleef. (Hanafis, Shafis, Malikis)
Some Hanbalis say it is fard.
“When the Prophet (saw) used to enter sleeping he said Salaam quietly for those who maybe awake to hear.”
[Bukhari No. 2075]
10 – IT IS NOT ALLOWED TO SAY SALAAM TO A KAAFIR
The Messenger of Allah (saw) said,
“Do not start the Jews and Christians with Salaam, and if you see them face to face avoid them. If he says Salaams, say Walaykum.”
[Muslim No. 2167]
Reported by Anas ibn Malik,
“The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “if Ahl al Kitaab say Salaam, say Walaykum (and you).””
[Bukhari No. 6258]
“Jews used to say to the messenger of Allah (saw) Asaam Alaykum, (death be upon you), the messenger of Allah (saw) used to reply, Walaykum (and you).”
11 – WHAT IF YOU ENTER A GROUP OF MUSLIMS AND NON MUSLIMS?
“The messenger of Allah (saw) said salaam to a group. Mushriks where amongst them.”
[Bukhari No. 6254]
Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal said
“if I go to a group, and kuffar and Muslims are there, I say Salaam, my niyyah is only to Muslims.”
12 – CAN WE GIVE SALAAM BY HAND?
On the authority of Jabir,
“The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “Do not salute by Salutation of the Jews, by their heads, by hand, or by fingers.””
[Imam Nisai, also mentioned in Fath ul Bari, Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani]
– When women said salaam to the messenger of Allah (saw) he replied by hand.
– Also allowed to salute by hand for deaf people.
– Not from sunnah for women to kiss eachother. (salutation)
Jabir ibn Abdullah narrates,
“The Messenger of Allah (saw) sent me on a mission, Khutabah was praying, I said Salaam to him, he raised his hand to me. Afterwards Khutabah said to Jabir Ibn Abdullah “did you see me reply”… “yes that is what the messenger of Allah (saw) taught us.”
[Muslim No. 540, Abu Dawoud No. 925]
13 – WHAT ABOUT WHEN SOMEONE IS READING QURAN ?
– It is permissible for him to ask,
– It is fard for him to reply, (although not necessarily immediately breaking his recitation for it, but after he has stopped to take a breath.)
14 – WHEN SOMEONE IS IN THE TOILET, IT IS NOT ALLOWED TO SAY SALAAM
Reported by Ibn Umar,
“A man said salaam to the messenger of Allah (saw) while he was in the toilet, the messenger never replied nor raised his hand. The Messenger (saw) said, “I dislike to mention Allah’s name without purity.””
[Muslim No. 370]
– When entering your home and no one is there, still say Assalam Alaykum, upon yourself.
– It is Sunnah to say Salaam to you family/wife
– When someone tells someone to pass on a salaam to someone else, Fard to pass it on, recommended for him to answer
– Hanbalis say Wajib to pray 2 rak’ats at mosque before saying salaam.
– When at Salaatul Jummah, and the Imam is speaking it is not allowed to speak or say Salaam, [Bukhari No. 934]
– If someone talks to you without salaam – it is Makrouh
– If people are eating and you say Salaam, they must reply
– Sunnah to speak while you are eating, hadeeth says even how much your weapons cost you.
A man he used to do haram, then go to pray, used to say salaam to the messenger of Allah (saw) and the messenger (saw) never used to reply.
15 – HOW TO SHAKE HANDS
“Shake hands, it will remove the hatred from your heart, give gifts, you will love eachother.”
[Mu’watta Imam Malik, No. 1685]
“Whenever two Muslims meet, Shake Hand from your heart, Allah will forgive them before they are separated.”
[Abu Dawoud No. 5212, Bukhari No. 6263]
– Not allowed to shake hands after salaat
Sunnah of Shaking hands of children, is to stroke their head
[Bukhari No. 966, Chapter of Shaking Hands]
The Bay’ah is done verbally
[Hadeeth of Aisha, Bukhari N. 2588].
“Women said to the messenger of Allah (saw), “you are like our father, let us shake your hand”, the messenger of Allah (saw) said, “I do not shake hands of any women, my saying to one women is like a saying to a hundred women.”
[Musnad Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal No. 20,466, Tirmidhi No. 1597, Ibn Majah No. 2874]
– Sunnah is to keep fingers closed and full palm to full palm
Islamic Verdict on Bankruptcy
What is the Islamic verdict about bankruptcy?
Definition of the “Muflis” (bankrupt)
The Muflis, in the Arabic language, refers to the person who has no money at all, except the fulus, the fulus being a small coin – and who cannot afford to cover his own maintenance; this applies to everything from goods, gold, silver, liquid assets and so on.
The muflis in Shari‘ah terminology refers to a person whose debts are greater than his assets and his expenses are greater than his income. The Muflis is an Arabic word derived from “fulus” which is the plural of fels, a copper coin, known to be the lowest unit of currency and the lowest in value, used only for trivial matters. The fels is light in weight and very low in value. The Islamic Shari‘ah has determined accurately and meticulously all types of weights and measurements. Abu Dawud reported on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “The standard measurement should be that of the people of Madinah, and the standard weight should be that of the people of Makkah.” The classical scholars have studied the Shari‘ah texts, and found that the lawful Dinar weighed 4.25 grams of gold, and that the lawful Dirham weighed 2.975 grams of silver. The weight of the fels coin is actually 1/72nd of a grain of barley (0.62 grams), therefore the weight of the fels would be 0.0086 grams. Due to its light weight and its very low value, a person who does not have any money but fulus becomes known as a muflis.
Islam forbids the imprisonment of the muflis who is facing hardship, or the indebted person, and this is the widely spread opinion adopted by most of the scholars of the various Islamic Schools of Thought, referring in their evidence to Allah’s (swt) saying,
“If, however (the debtor) is in straightened circumstances, (grant him) a delay until a time of ease; and it would be for your own good – if you but knew it – to remit (the debt entirely) by way of charity.” [TMQ 2:280]
It has been reported that the Messenger of Allah (saw) divided the assets of the muflis among the creditors, but he (saw) never imprisoned a muflis.
Islam has strongly stressed the obligation the indebted has towards his debtors, ordering him to settle his debts. Muslim reported on the authority of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “The martyr would have all his sins washed away (forgiven) except the debt.”
Freezing the Assets of the Muflis
If the debts owed by the muflis were confirmed by a just person’s testimony, or if he himself admitted that he owed people money, and if his debtors asked the ruler to freeze his assets, then the Khaleefah must take action to do so. It would also be a duty for the Khaleefah to declare the freezing of his assets, and therefore to warn people against dealing with him lest they lose their money. This actually comes under one of the Khaleefah’s duties, which is to look after people’s affairs. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “Each one of you is a guardian and each one is responsible over his guardianship, and the Imam is a guardian and he is responsible over his subjects.”
If the Khaleefah freezes the assets of the muflis, in order to sell them off and reimburse or return them to the debtors, he should however, under his duty of guardianship and fairness, leave the muflis enough funds in order to support himself and his dependants. Therefore, his house would not be sold, for he cannot live without it. But if he has two houses, one of them would be sold. If the muflis was working and earning, then in this case all his assets (except for his house which he needs to live in) would be sold and the debtors would be reimbursed. If the muflis could not work or could not find work, then enough money would be left for him to support himself, and he would be supported together with his dependants (by the State) until he was in a position to repay his debtors. Evidence about the freezing of the assets of the muflis by the Khaleefah comes from the narration of al-Darqutni on the authority of ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Ka‘b ibn Malik that he said, “Mu‘adh ibn Jabal was a young generous man, he used to spend all his money, he kept borrowing money until all his assets were overtaken by his debts, so his debtors spoke to the Messenger of Allah (saw) about it, and the Messenger of Allah (saw) sold all of Mu‘adh’s assets, until Mu‘adh had no assets left.”
Returning the Goods to the Debtors
If the Khaleefah chooses to freeze the assets of the muflis, and some of his debtors identify the goods that they have sold him, the goods should be returned to them and will not be included in those assets which are to be divided. Al-Bukhari, Muslim, al-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and al-Nisa’i reported on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “Whoever finds his goods with a man who has become muflis, he would be more entitled to them.”
Dividing the assets of the muflis would be in parts and not equally. The Shari‘ah rule concerning the dividing of the assets, be it goods or other, is that the Khaleefah should sell the assets, then divide them amongst the debtors in parts, but not necessarily in equal parts, for he could not do them justice otherwise. ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Dallaf reported that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab announced regarding a man from Juhayna, that whoever was owed by him anything should turn up the next day for he was dividing his assets into parts. The Khaleefah, or his delegated assistant would then divide the parts among the debtors.
Who can be present and who can file a claim against the muflis? The following are not eligible for a share of the division of assets of the muflis:
1. Those that did not place a claim against the muflis;
2. Those that are not present at the time of the dividing of the assets, or did not send a delegate;
3. Those for whom the debt is not yet due, whether they have claimed it or not.
Giving sadaqah to the Muflis
Islam has made it obligatory upon every Muslim to pay zakat if the money reached the nisab (the minimum amount of money eligible for zakat) and completed a whole year. The payment of zakat must be only made to the Khaleefah or an authorised deputy (representative), and it is he who undertakes to spend it on those made eligible by Shari‘ah. It is forbidden to pay the zakat to anyone other than the Khaleefah or his a’amil (collector). In the absence of the Khaleefah, as is our situation today, the Muslim is commanded to pay it himself directly to the categories mentioned in the verse where Allah (swt) says,
“The offerings given for the sake of Allah are (meant) only for the poor and the needy, and those who are in charge thereof, and those whose hearts are to be won over, and for the freeing of human beings from bondage, and (for) those who are over-burdened with debts, and (for every struggle) in Allah’s cause, and (for) the wayfarer: (this is) an ordinance from Allah – and Allah is all-knowing, wise.” [TMQ 9:60]
We note in the ayah that Allah (swt) referred to the gahrimeen, they are those in debt, and those who assume the burdens of debt to eliminate enmity, or to pay the diyyah (blood money), or those who assume the burdens of debt for personal needs, or the mufliseen (bankrupts). Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “Begging is not permissible but for three types of persons: One with wretched poverty, or one with a horrid debt, or one with a painful blood money.” Qabisa ibn al-Mukhariq al-Hilali reported that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said to him, “Qabisa! Begging is not permissible but for one of the three types of persons: One who has incurred debt, for him begging is permissible till he pays that off, after which he must stop it; a man whose property has been destroyed by a calamity which has smitten him, for him begging is permissible till he gets what will support life, or will provide him reasonable subsistence; and a person who has been smitten by poverty, the genuineness of which is confirmed by three intelligent members of his people, for him begging is permissible until he gets that which will support him. Qasiba! besides these three, (begging) for any other reason is forbidden, and anyone who engages in such, consumes that which is forbidden.”
Therefore, it is forbidden to confiscate property of the muflis, to imprison him, or to charge him interest or penalties. However, the Khaleefah or his deputy have the sole power to freeze his assets and goods, which are in excess of his basic needs, to sell them and reimburse his debtors, giving him back any money left over after settlement. The indebted person must endeavour to do all he can to settle his debts, for he will be held accountable on the Day of Judgement, as is mentioned in the hadith above. In the case of the absence of the Khaleefah, such as our situation today, some people will deny their own debts, and since there is no-one to ensure collection of these debts, it will lead to the law of Allah (swt) not being implemented. Therefore the whole of the Muslim Ummah will be sinful except those that commit themselves in action, to re-establishing the Islamic State and appointing a Khaleefah to carry out his duties and implement the Islamic laws, giving everyone his rights, ensuring the laws are implemented, and that those abusing the law are punished.
1. Borrowing which is free from riba is mubah, subject to certain conditions.
2. The lending which is free from riba is mandub , subject to conditions.
3. To settle the debt (repay the loan) without riba is fard, subject to conditions.
4. In Islam, to imprison the indebted is forbidden.
5. To freeze the assets of the bankrupt, which are in excess of his own maintenance and that of his family, is permissible for the Imam (ruler) or his deputy alone.
6. Usurious loans, whether lending, borrowing, witnessing or writing are all forbidden.